Material is included.
Production is included.
Partially, not for all ingredients.
Cooking is not included.
End of life is not included.
We focus on carbon footprint (CO2e), the decisive factor affecting climate change. However, other dimensions should be taken in account before taking decisions, e.g. the water, the waste and the land footprint as well as the ethical perspective. Click here to learn more about CO2e.
Recipe from: https://foodhero.org//recipes/spinach-chicken-italian
ifeu - Institut für Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH (2020). Ecological footprint of food and dishes in Germany. URL: https://www.ifeu.de/projekt/oekologischer-fussabdruck-von-lebensmitteln-und-gerichten-in-deutschland/
Eat Organic Quote: Food’s Carbon Footprint (2020) Food’s Carbon Footprint. URL: http://www.greeneatz.com/foods-carbon-footprint.html
Brooks, M., Foster, C., Holmes, M., & Wiltshire, J. (2011). Does consuming seasonal foods benefit the environment? Insights from recent research. Nutrition Bulletin, 36(4), 449-453. URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01932.x
DeWeerdt, S. (2009). Is local food better?. World Watch Magazine, 22(3), 6-10. URL: http://www.geopathfinder.com/IsLocalFoodBetter.pdf
Wakeland, W., Cholette, S., & Venkat, K. (2012). Food transportation issues and reducing carbon footprint. In Green technologies in food production and processing (pp. 211-236). Springer, Boston, MA. URL: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-1587-9_9
Vermeulen, S. J., Campbell, B. M., & Ingram, J. S. (2012). Climate change and food systems. Annual review of environment and resources, 37. URL: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-environ-020411-130608
Virtanen, Y., Kurppa, S., Saarinen, M., Katajajuuri, J. M., Usva, K., Mäenpää, I., ... & Nissinen, A. (2011). Carbon footprint of food–approaches from national input–output statistics and a LCA of a food portion. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(16), 1849-1856. URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.07.001
Scarborough, P., Appleby, P. N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs, A. D., Travis, R. C., Bradbury, K. E., & Key, T. J. (2014). Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Climatic change, 125(2), 179-192. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4372775/
Sustainablity researchers making this input possible: